Freedom = Following (which turns into coming back when called) is the most valuable thing that we can teach our puppies.
Puppies need to be free from the start, so that they can explore their world. If you don’t trust your puppy off-leash at 12 weeks old when you can literally out-run him, then you don’t stand a chance when he is fully grown.
Certainly, we need to be ready to help and protect when needed. However, we must fight the urge to micro-control, but instead have diversified walks, e.g. at different places, including motivational exercises and games.
If you are too much of a mother bear, let your dog drag a long-line (10 m / 30 ft.). Giving your dog freedom, for a lifetime of enjoyable walks, shouldn’t be hard to learn.